Stateful Applications

This tutorial demonstrates how to use the core Liqo features to deploy stateful applications. In particular, you will deploy a multi-master mariadb-galera database across a multi-cluster environment (composed of two clusters, respectively identified as Turin and Lyon), hence replicating the data in multiple regions.

Provision the playground

First, check that you are compliant with the requirements.

Then, let’s open a terminal on your machine and launch the following script, which creates the two above-mentioned clusters with KinD and installs Liqo on them. Each cluster is made by a single combined control-plane + worker node.

git clone
cd liqo
git checkout master
cd examples/stateful-applications

Export the kubeconfigs environment variables to use them in the rest of the tutorial:

export KUBECONFIG="$PWD/liqo_kubeconf_turin"
export KUBECONFIG_LYON="$PWD/liqo_kubeconf_lyon"


The install script creates two clusters with no overlapping pod CIDRs. This is required by the mariadb-galera application to work correctly. Given it needs to know the real IP of the connected masters, it will not work correctly when natting is enabled.


We suggest exporting the kubeconfig of the first cluster as default (i.e., KUBECONFIG), since it will be the entry point of the virtual cluster and you will mainly interact with it.

Peer the clusters

Once Liqo is installed in your clusters, you can establish new peerings. In this example, since the two API Servers are mutually reachable, you will use the out-of-band peering approach.

To implement the desired scenario, let’s first retrieve the peer command from the Lyon cluster:

PEER_LYON=$(liqoctl generate peer-command --only-command --kubeconfig $KUBECONFIG_LYON)

Then, establish the peering from the Turin cluster:

echo "$PEER_LYON" | bash

When the above command returns successfully, you can check the peering status by running:

kubectl get foreignclusters

The output should look like the following, indicating that an outgoing peering is currently active towards the Lyon cluster,, as well as that the cross-cluster network tunnel has been established:

lyon   Established        None               Established   Established      1m28s

Deploy a stateful application

In this step, you will deploy a mariadb-galera database using the Bitnami helm chart.

First, you need to add the helm repository:

helm repo add bitnami

Then, create the namespace and offload it to remote clusters:

kubectl create namespace liqo-demo
liqoctl offload namespace liqo-demo --namespace-mapping-strategy EnforceSameName

This command will create a twin liqo-demo namespace in the Lyon cluster. Refer to the dedicated usage page for additional information concerning namespace offloading configurations.

Now, deploy the helm chart:

helm install db bitnami/mariadb-galera -n liqo-demo -f manifests/values.yaml

The release is configured to:

  • have two replicas;

  • spread the replicas across the cluster (i.e., a hard pod anti-affinity is set);

  • use the liqo virtual storage class.

Check that these constraints are met by typing:

kubectl get pods -n liqo-demo -o wide

After a while (the startup process might require a few minutes), you should see two replicas of a StatefulSet spread over two different nodes (one local and one remote).

NAME                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE                  NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
db-mariadb-galera-0   1/1     Running   0          3m13s   liqo-lyon             <none>           <none>
db-mariadb-galera-1   1/1     Running   0          2m6s   turin-control-plane   <none>           <none>

Consume the database

When the database is up and running, check that it is operating as expected executing a simple SQL client in your cluster:

kubectl run db-mariadb-galera-client --rm --tty -i \
    --restart='Never' --namespace default \
    --image \
    --command \
      -- mysql -h db-mariadb-galera.liqo-demo -uuser -ppassword my_database

And then create an example table and insert some data:

    PersonID int,
    LastName varchar(255),
    FirstName varchar(255),
    Address varchar(255),
    City varchar(255)

    (PersonID, LastName, FirstName, Address, City)
    (1, 'Smith', 'John', '123 Main St', 'Anytown');

You are now able to query the database and grab the data:

| PersonID | LastName | FirstName | Address     | City    |
|        1 | Smith    | John      | 123 Main St | Anytown |
1 row in set (0.000 sec)

Database failures toleration

With this setup the applications running on a cluster can tolerate failures of the local database replica.

This can be checked deleting one of the replicas:

kubectl delete pod db-mariadb-galera-0 -n liqo-demo

And querying again for your data:

kubectl run db-mariadb-galera-client --rm --tty -i \
    --restart='Never' --namespace default \
    --image \
    --command \
      -- mysql -h db-mariadb-galera.liqo-demo -uuser -ppassword my_database \
      --execute "SELECT * FROM People;"


Try deleting the other replica and query again.

NOTE: at least one of the two replicas should be always running, be careful deleting all of them.


You can run exactly the same commands to query the data from the other cluster, and you will get the same results.

Tear down the playground

Unoffload namespaces

Before starting the uninstallation process, make sure that all namespaces are unoffloaded:

liqoctl unoffload namespace liqo-demo

Every pod that was offloaded to a remote cluster is going to be rescheduled onto the local cluster.

Revoke peerings

Similarly, make sure that all the peerings are revoked:

liqoctl unpeer out-of-band lyon

At the end of the process, the virtual node is removed from the local cluster.

Uninstall Liqo

Now you can remove Liqo from your clusters with liqoctl:

liqoctl uninstall
liqoctl uninstall --kubeconfig="$KUBECONFIG_LYON"


By default the Liqo CRDs will remain in the cluster, but they can be removed with the --purge flag:

liqoctl uninstall --purge
liqoctl uninstall --kubeconfig="$KUBECONFIG_LYON" --purge

Destroy clusters

To teardown the KinD clusters, you can issue:

kind delete cluster --name turin
kind delete cluster --name lyon